A Guide To Helping Students Excel In O And A Level Science

Part 1: The Importance Of Science

Science is one of the most fundamental building blocks of society. From the latest COVID vaccines to the smartphones we use every day, our lives hinge upon the applied nature of science and mankind’s continued endeavours in research and innovation. And it begins by cultivating a strong passion and curiosity towards the sciences in our children, helping to nurture both their skills and mindsets to help make the world a better place.

Singapore’s world-renowned education system places a strong emphasis on the sciences, with a robust O and A Level syllabus equipping young students with the analytical and critical skills to succeed in diverse careers. Students are exposed to topics such as chemistry, biology, and mathematics, amongst others, providing a well-rounded avenue from which they can seek further reinforcement from quality tuition centres.

Beyond scoring well to enter a good university and having better career opportunities, a strong foundation in science allows students to better understand the challenges in demanding but fulfilling STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) careers. Some of the best science careers in Singapore include bioengineering, microbiology, chemical engineering, and pharmaceutical research, amongst others. They combine a professional and well-paid career with the knowledge that one’s work directly improves the lives of those around them through novel innovations and processes.

Beyond STEM, there are numerous careers that do not involve lab research, but require the understanding of scientific principles as well as having an analytical mind. A major trending field in the 21st century is data analytics and machine learning, due to its potential to identify new business opportunities which help enhance business decisions, operations, and profits. It requires a solid foundation in programming, computational framework, and statistics, which stem from a mastery of logic and mathematics.

Above all, a strong foundation in science helps students to sharpen and nurture a critical mind. It empowers them to consider what they learn and form their own opinions, instills the concept of collecting and organising information before making sound decisions, and inculcates patience and perseverance as they step into new challenges in adulthood. 

These skills go a long way to preparing them for success, regardless of what they pursue.

With the high academic expectations that students face, qualified tuition teachers are invaluable in reinforcing their understanding in biology, chemistry, and math, particularly for H2 subjects in Singapore. A skilled tutor inspires students and makes subjects both relevant and understandable. In turn, this provides students the confidence and passion to excel in their subjects independently of grades, as well as encouraging self-directed learning in areas and careers they are interested in.

Pamela’s Place is a qualified O and A Level math, biology, and chemistry tuition centre located in Bukit Timah. With numerous success stories, we empower your child to ace their exams and step into their future brimming with potential. Read on to learn more about how science is taught in both O and A Level syllabi, as well as how your child can best prepare for them.

Part 2: Overcoming The O Levels

The O Levels is one of the first national exams that greatly impact your child’s future schooling and career plans. We introduce the Upper Secondary O Level science subjects, key topics that will be covered, as well as tips to help your child score well for their O Levels.

2.1 A Bigger World

The transition from Lower Secondary to Upper Secondary is an important one for many students. They have to choose their subject combination during the streaming process at the end of Sec 2, coping with more subjects which are individually more rigorous. Naturally, many Singaporean students seek O Level biology tuition, along with math and chemistry tuition, to help reinforce their understanding and improve their scores.

Lower Secondary Science focuses on building core ideas and practices across disciplines, teaching various elements such as energy transfer, the atomic model and basic cellular function, the human body, and ecosystems, amongst other topics. Upper Secondary science branches off into Physics, Biology, and Chemistry. Choosing the right subjects is essential as they affect students’ eligibility to enroll in certain majors in both polytechnics and universities. 

Chemistry requires a more analytical approach, involving a mixture of calculations while also exploring fundamental concepts. Biology adopts a more ‘big-picture’ and integrated approach, where students learn how diverse topics come together to form a unified concept of life. Many Singapore students enroll in O Level chemistry and biology tuition to help strengthen their footing and build up their understanding.

Lower Secondary Math focuses on building fundamentals such as algebraic expressions and formulae, equations and inequalities, as well as basic trigonometry and probability. From there, it diverges into two separate subjects, E (Elementary) and A (Additional) Mathematics. All Sec 3 students are required to take E Math, with A Math being an additional, optional subject. O Level students with an aptitude in mathematics are highly encouraged to take A Math, while students in the IP track are already required to learn A Math.

A Math is a prerequisite for Singaporean students intending to take H2 Mathematics in JC, as well as for enrolling in various polytechnic courses. It adopts a more conceptual approach with greater representation of solutions in mathematical form, as well as relational standing to see how concepts work in tandem with one another. While challenging, a capable O Level math tuition centre goes a long way into helping students master A Math.

A common concern that many Lower Secondary students who are struggling with math have is whether to take A Math or stick to E Math alone. Many of them express concern over the increased academic workload and heightened stress, which can spill over into their other subjects and affect their overall grades. That said, one advantage of A Math is that it is systematic in syllabus design, which means that with sufficient practice and understanding, getting a good score becomes much more attainable.

Quality tuition centres in Singapore, such as Pamela’s Place, help your child master O Level chemistry, biology, and math. This empowers them to confidently tackle their subjects, while providing additional options when continuing to take those subjects in JC or choosing related majors in polytechnics. 

2.2 Key Academic Areas

To help your child excel in their subjects, it helps to understand the O Level syllabus that students will encounter, before enrolling them in the relevant chemistry, biology, or math tuition that they may require.

For Upper Secondary Chemistry, students will be introduced to concepts such as:

  • Rate of reactions, stoichiometry, and moles 
  • Chemical bonding and reactions
  • The periodic table and elements
  • Organic chemistry
  • Experimental design and lab apparatus

Generally, chemistry is considered one of the harder science subjects, which is why many students sign up for O Level chemistry tuition in Singapore. A good tutor helps students apply analytical skills to various scenarios presented in chemistry exams, instead of relying on memorising. Students are also encouraged to break down study material into smaller pieces that are easier to master, which builds up over time and allows them to more easily grasp larger, more complex concepts.

For Upper Secondary Math, the E Math syllabus focuses on reinforcing and building upon what was learnt in Secondary 1 and 2, such as:

  • Functions and graphs
  • Equations and inequalities
  • Algebraic expressions and formulae
  • Trigonometry and coordinate geometry
  • Vectors in two dimensions

The A Math syllabus introduces newer concepts that will play an important role in H2 Math, such as:

  • Quadratic functions
  • Polynomials and partial fractions
  • Trigonometric functions, identities, and equations
  • Differentiation and integration
  • Exponential and logarithmic functions
  • Binomial expansions

As mentioned earlier, A Math is a systematic subject, but requires time for students to fully grasp the concepts and internalise them. A good O Level math tuition centre in Singapore has a small class size, ensuring students receive more attention from tutors compared to a classroom setting. This allows tutors to address individual students’ concerns and adjust to their learning styles, building in them the confidence and mastery in Math.

For Upper Secondary Biology, students will be exposed to topics such as:

  • Cell structure and organisation
  • Biological molecules
  • Human and plant systems
  • Molecular genetics
  • Ecosystems

The common tactic of memory work and regurgitation falls short particularly for biology, due to the complex interlinks and cumulative nature of the syllabus. In addition, biology is a much more content heavy subject compared to chemistry or math, requiring a holistic understanding rather than simply applying formulae or calculations. An O Level biology tuition centre such as Pamela’s Place focuses on helping students master general biology concepts common to various topics, before moving into more detailed and focused concepts.

2.3 Tips To Excel

Parents want the best for their children, particularly in Singapore where academics play a huge role in setting them up for success. Here are some useful tips to help your child score well in their O Levels.

  1. Instil the importance of practice.

Practice always makes perfect, building up greater expertise, confidence, as well as speed in which questions are answered. Calculation-heavy subjects such as Math and Chemistry provide a reference booklet with various formulae, allowing students to efficiently apply them. However, many students waste valuable time flipping through the booklets to recall which formulae to apply. A skilled O Level chemistry or math tuition teacher will drill these formulae until they become second nature, helping students finish their exams with time to check through.

2. Understand what the exams require.

It pays not only to learn hard, but learn smart. Each exam tests students in different ways, with marks being awarded accordingly. A good O Level tuition teacher will teach students useful tips to get the most amount of marks. This ranges from getting ‘method marks’ from answering math and chemistry questions, eliminating wrong answers in MCQ questions, as well as understanding keywords and what the question requires when writing responses in biology and chemistry exams.

3. Utilise visual-based learning.

Particularly for concept-based subjects such as Chemistry and Biology, many students find it much easier to learn when seeing various molecules and systems and how they interact. A good biology or chemistry tuition teacher utilises diverse forms of media to teach students, ranging from interactive apps on tablets and laptops to interesting videos that teach beyond the syllabus’ scope. This keeps students interested while leaving a greater impression, helping to deepen their understanding for better recall during exams.

4. Help your child balance their commitments.

Beyond studies, secondary school students are also busily chasing CCA commitments and their social/recreational activities, spending significant amounts of time engaging in them with their friends. Ultimately, they are teenagers in the stage of puberty and are facing various changes and challenges in their lives. By helping them plan a flexible study schedule supported by O Level tuition for their required subjects, this allows them to grow up holistically and healthily.

Part 3: Acing The A Levels

The A Levels present a different set of challenges from the O Levels, with greater academic demands and requiring sustained studying across the years. Learn more about JC science subjects and how A Level tuition plays an important role in helping your child get into a good university.

3.1 A Greater Challenge

Having overcome their O Levels, many students who score well may fall into the illusion that their study strategies are sufficient to ace their A Levels. Unlike the O Levels, the A Levels is akin to a marathon, with students having to constantly maintain and keep abreast of their studying, while still juggling CCA commitments, leadership roles, and involvement in self-directed initiatives.


Many students try to ‘sprint’ their way through and cram many topics just before their exams, running out of stamina, morale, and scoring poorly. This can create a downward spiral where they gradually lose momentum in staying focused on their academics, which leads to poorer grades and ultimately being unable to enroll in the university or major of their choice. A Level math tuition, along with chemistry and biology tuition, plays an important role in helping Singaporean students overcome this issue and ace their H1 and H2 subjects.

One of the most stark differences in learning is that JC tutors will no longer ‘handhold’ students and provide feedback on their ongoing academic performance. JC adopts a lecture and tutorial-based style similar to universities, where students are expected to take charge of their own learning. This can be challenging for IP stream students, who may not have honed study discipline due to not being required to take most O Level exams, which can lead them to quickly fall behind even in the early stages of J1.

A Level Chemistry and Biology build upon the concepts learnt in secondary school, while going heavily in-depth into areas such as organic chemistry, molecular cycles, and genetics. A good JC chemistry tuition centre in Singapore plays an important role in reinforcing past fundamentals while covering students’ numerous A Level topics, helping them to score well in both their paper and practical exams.

Just like choosing between E or A Math, there is the option to choose between H1 and H2 Math. H2 Math is strongly recommended due to it being a prerequisite for a wide range of fields, such as medicine, dentistry, engineering, and economics. It does come with increased rigour, necessitating Singaporean students to sign up for H2 math tuition to supplement their academic needs.

3.2 Key Academic Areas

Similar to the O Levels, understanding the A Level science syllabi is the first step towards mastery and good grades. H2 sciences cover a large number of topics in a very short duration, which is where chemistry, biology, or math tuition comes into play and helps students reinforce and grow comfortable with these topics.

Building upon O Level content, H2 Chemistry features a balance of both calculations as well as applied concepts. Some areas that the H2 Chemistry Syllabus covers include:

  • Atomic structure and chemical bonding
  • Reaction kinetics and chemical equilibrium
  • Organic chemistry and isomerism
  • Organic compounds and reaction pathways
  • Electrochemistry

With numerous application questions and the daunting scope of Organic Chemistry, H2 Chemistry requires extensive focus and determination to score well. JC chemistry tuitions in Singapore, such as Pamela’s Place, challenge students to work under simulated exam conditions with crash courses. Together with prelim papers and compiled questions, they provide students with the confidence to work under pressure and recall what they need to score well.

The H2 Maths Syllabus is split into two parts: Pure Maths and Probability & Statistics. Combined together, they cover a wide range of topics including but not limited to:

  • Functions, graphs and transformations
  • Equations and inequalities
  • Sequences and series
  • Vectors
  • Complex numbers
  • Differentiation, integration, and differential equations
  • Statistical distribution, correlation, and linear regression

With its numerous topics, complexity and demands for constant practice, H2 Math is arguably one of the hardest H2 science subjects. Topics such as calculus, vectors, as well as statistics can easily confuse many students, leading to low morale if students are unable to grasp them effectively. A good H2 math tuition centre in Singapore reinforces students’ basics with constant practice, as well as teaching them how to apply formula correctly to save time in exam settings.

Lastly, the H2 Biology Syllabus places a major focus on the micro side of biology, covering topics such as:

  • Cells and biomolecules
  • Genetics and inheritance
  • Energy and equilibrium
  • Biological evolution

In particular, many students struggle with understanding complex reaction cycles such as the Krebs cycle and the process of cell division and reproduction. A good A level biology tuition centre provides convenient and comprehensive summary notes for each topic, allowing students to easily refer to them as they practice their papers and revise key topics. In addition, they drill students to be able to clearly explain the various processes involved for the proper awarding of marks in application questions.

3.3 Tips To Excel

The A Levels are challenging and arduous, but with proper guidance you can help your child excel and enter the university of their dreams. Here are some useful tips as they study for their A Levels:

  1. Clarify concerns through consultations.

With the lecture-and-tutorial based learning style, students have to take ownership of their learning and arrange consultations with both their school and tuition centre teachers. Fortunately, the smaller class sizes and individual attention that A level tuition centres offer make it easier to arrange for consultations. Pamela’s Place offers unlimited consultations for all our students, allowing them to Whatsapp a question they may be working on and receiving prompt clarification and support.

  1. Complement one’s studying style.

While constant practice is always key to excelling, every student has their own studying style. Some students may prefer to drill past-year papers and write numerous notes to grow familiar with content, while others may spend time crafting mind maps and diagrams to visualise concepts and for quick reference. Skilled A level tuition teachers will work with their students and optimise their studying style, be it helping them achieve learning objectives or working through their concept maps.

  1. Constantly revisit previous topics.

With the constantly heavy academic load, many students are frantically playing catch up with their latest subjects taught in school, and end up neglecting previous topics. This is particularly true for content-heavy subjects such as chemistry and biology. A good A Level biology tuition centre will set aside time to conduct revision on early concepts, testing students’ familiarity through constant quizzes, and providing useful feedback as necessary. 

  1. Maintain achievable study goals.

Burnout for A Levels is a major concern for students, particularly with the pressure of getting perfect As to apply for a prestigious university. Just like a marathon, it is important to help your child pace themselves while still focusing on the constant goal of academic mastery. Some tactics include maintaining a proper revision table to facilitate study and rest cycles, creating a conducive environment for studying at home, and setting small and achievable goals each day, such as completing a mock exam or writing revision notes.

Part 4: Conclusion 

The O and A Levels play an essential role in helping your child pursue the career of their choice, and strengthening their science foundations early on is essential in helping them score well and have a bright future ahead as they step into adulthood.

Pamela’s Place is located at Bukit Timah, and we offer trial lessons for interested students who want to take that first step towards succeeding in the sciences. You may contact us via the online form, or Whatsapp +(65) 9151 0956 today to get in touch. 

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